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Cobra Learning - Screen reader tips
Screen reader tips
Cobra Learning is a learning management system that enables you to access course material online. There are a number of learning tools within the system that course content is contained in. This topic discusses how the system is laid out, and how different functionality, settings, and preferences benefit individuals that navigate the system using a screen reader (or other assistive technologies that interpret the contents of a page).
This topic does not document how to use specific assistive technologies. Please refer to help material for the software or device you are using if you want to learn about its specific functionality, shortcuts, and commands.
Table of contents
- Logging in
- Logging out
- Site organization
- General page layout
- Personal tools
- Calendar page layout
- Getting additional support
The Login page for Cobra Learning has three form elements: Username, Password, and Login. The Username field has focus when you enter the page. The Password field and Login button are the next tab options.
There are two additional options displayed as links: Forgot Password? and Please click here for a System Check before you log in. The Forgot Password? link opens a new window where you can request a password reset link be sent to the email address associated with your username. The System Check link opens a new page that lets you know if your computer meets the minimum criteria for using Cobra Learning. If you do not meet the criteria, a message displays explaining what components need updating.
The Logout link is one of the navigation links available in the navbar at the top of all pages. You can access it using a links list, or by tabbing through the navigation links starting at the top of the page.
Cobra Learning is typically organized into two levels of information: organization related information and course related information. Organization related information typically appears on My Home, while course related information typically appears on Course Home and different course tools.
My Home is generally the first page you access when you log into Cobra Learning. It is a central area for accessing courses, checking for institution-wide news and events, and updating your site preferences and personal information.
Like all pages in Cobra Learning, My Home has a navigation area across the top of the page. This navigation area, typically called the navbar, contains links to different tools. Since My Home is an organization level page, the links in the navigation area for My Home usually go to organization level or course-independent tools, such as your personal Locker, Email and ePortfolio. This navigation area has a Heading 2 called "Navigation". It is organized using unordered lists.
Other My Home content is organized in widgets. Typical widgets include: News, My Courses, My Settings and Events. You can navigate and search for widgets by Heading 2s, and navigate sections within a widget by Heading 3s.
One of the main purposes of My Home is to provide access to your courses and other tools. We recommend you use your screen reader to view a link list and heading list for your My Home to get a feel for what options are available to you.
To access a Course Home, you must select it from the My Courses widget. If you have more than one role in Cobra Learning (for example, you are both a Graduate Student and a Teaching Assistant) you need to select the tab for the role you want to view courses for. Depending on your screen reader, widget tabs may be read as tabs or links. They should always be the first content after the widget's heading.
Course Home is the first page you visit when you enter a course. It is a central area for accessing course specific information. Like My Home, Course Home pages have a navigation area across the top of the page and a number of widgets that contain information and links. Information and links on Course Home are specific to that course (unless they are for course-independent tools). For example, the navigation area for a Course Home might contain links to Grades, Discussions and Quizzes for that specific course. Use Heading 2s to navigate to the main Navigation area and the different course widgets.
Navigation area and Skip to main content links
At the top of each page is a navigation area called the navbar that contains an unordered list with the main tool links for the course you are viewing (or for My Home or a department if you are not in a course). You can jump to the navbar by selecting the heading "Navigation". You can skip the navbar on any page by selecting the Skip to main content link.
Headings and ARIA landmarks
Headings and ARIA landmarks are used throughout the system to help you navigate pages. Heading 1s and Main landmarks are used for page titles. Heading 2s are used for widgets and major page sections. Heading 3s are used to organize information within widgets and major sections. Navigation, Search and Complementary ARIA landmarks are used to provide context.
Note If you do not set the accessibility preference "Show secondary windows as pop-ups," your screen reader’s Heading and landmark lists will read two heading 1s and two Main ARIA landmarks when you open dialog boxes.
Tool menus and action bars
Tool menus and action bars are used to navigate areas within a specific tool. Typically, the left tool menu is used for complicated tools that need to be divided into different types of tasks. For example, in Grades the left tool menu divides the Enter Grades and Manage Grades areas. The top tool menu lists tasks or actions for the tool or tool area. For example, the top tool menu for the Enter Grades area of Grades has options to Import Grades or Export Grades. The action bar is used to complete page specific tasks. For example, the main Enter Grades page includes actions to change Display Settings (for the Enter Grades page) and Switch to Standard View.
Action icons and context menus
While tool menus and action bars are used to navigate between tool areas and major tasks, action icons and context menus are used to select an action for a specific item on a list page. Every action icon and context menu has unique text that references the item the action applies to. Action icons are typically used when items are displayed in a table list (grid), while context menus are used when items are displayed outside of a table. For example:
- Items you add to your locker are displayed in a grid with action icons to Move [item], Edit [item] and Delete [item] next to each item. You can select an action icon using a links list, or by tabbing to the icon from the applicable item in the grid.
- Items that appear on your ePortfolio dashboard use context menus beside thumbnail graphics of the item. You can use a context menu to open, view, edit, change permissions for, or delete an item. You can select a context menu by searching for Actions for [item] in a links list or by selecting the applicable item, hitting enter, and using the arrow and enter keys to select an action.
Tables (grids) are often used to organize content within a tool.
All tables use proper table summaries and headings. However, the easiest way to navigate items in a table is by a check box, since most table items have a Select [item] check box before their name.
Most items also have a list of actions after their name. These actions are organized in the Actions column and displayed as icons. Each action icon has a unique alt text so you can use a links list to select an action for an item. For example, you could use a links list to "Edit Topic 1".
You can also select multiple items from a table using the Select [item] check boxes and then selecting an action that can apply to multiple items. Actions that can apply to multiple items appear at the top and bottom of a table and use the alt text format [action] Selected Items. For example, you could use a links list to "Select Topic 1" and "Select Topic 2" and then "Edit Selected Items".
Complex tables often have drop-down menus for filtering information in the table. For example, some tables have a View drop-down menu that allows you to change how information is sorted. Most drop-downs have an accompanying Apply or Go button that initiates the action.
A few drop-downs, such as per page drop-downs, update on selection so you must use Alt + Down Arrow (Windows/Linux) or Option + Down Arrow (Mac) to open the drop-down and then use the Up Arrow or Down Arrow and Enter key to select an option.
If there are more items in a table than will display on a single page, use the Page drop-down menu, Next Page icon, or Previous Page icon to navigate to other pages.
Pages that use form fields for entering data or changing settings have a logical tab order. If a page is divided into multiple tabs, your screen reader may read the tabs as tab stops or as links. You normally cannot open a secondary tab until you have filled in all the mandatory fields on the first tab. Mandatory fields are indicated with an asterisk (*). The last options on a form are usually Cancel and Save. Sometimes the Save button is called something else related to completing the action, such as Select or Upload.
Many forms allow you to create content using our HTML Editor (WYSIWYG). The HTML Editor is fully accessible by keyboard, but lacks non-visual feedback when options or formatting are selected in the editor view. You can make changes in the source view so you can read your changes in the code as you work, or turn off the HTML Editor in your Preferences area. If you turn off the HTML Editor it is replaced by text fields that accept HTML.
Some form pages contain links to additional actions, which may not be recognized as form elements by your screen reader. For example, there is a link to create a New Folder on the Add Contact form in Email. Always check for links when filling out a form in Cobra Learning and other Desire2Learn products.
Most form pages provide either a confirmation or error message when you submit the form using an ARIA alert. The message appears at the top of the page and should take focus. If there were errors in your submission the message explains each error and provides links to the appropriate fields so you can resolve the issues.
Treeviews and frames
We have tried to keep page layouts as simple as possible. However, some tools, such as Manage Files and Email, use treeviews and frames to layout complicated lists of items and options. Most of these pages have options to Hide Tree (Manage Files) or Show (or hide) the folder list pane (Email). Check the tool's settings and tool bars for ways to simplify the page layout.
Many forms contain inline help; Help icons and links to additional help material appear either immediately after the page heading or section heading, or after individual fields. It is a good idea to read the entire contents of a form before filling it out, and to look for help text or a help link immediately after a field if you have difficulty understanding its purpose.
Some pages contain sections that are collapsed by default. Collapsed sections contain advanced or supplemental information that is not required to complete standard tasks. To expand a collapsed section using a keyboard or screen reader, select the appropriate Expand or Show icon.
When a list contains more items than the page currently displays, a Load More link appears at the bottom of the list as the final list item. Clicking this link appends more items to the list.
Some links open secondary pop-up windows for completing page-specific tasks. These links should indicate that they open in a new window through a title attribute. Use the Down Arrow and Tab keys to read the contents of the pop-up. The last options should be buttons to cancel or complete the task. Occasionally, these buttons are in a separate frame.
Important Some secondary pages use modal dialogs instead of separate windows to display information. If you primarily navigate the web using a screen reader we recommend that you select Show secondary windows as pop-ups on the Appearance and Accessibility tab in the Preferences tool.
Most pages that contain lists of items or users have a Search For field near the top of the page. To perform a search, enter a word or partial word in the Search For field and select the Search button.
Use the Show Search Options link to select advanced search options.
Use the Clear Search link to clear the Search For field.
Desire2Learn uses WAI-ARIA markup in a number or areas to help support navigation by keyboard and assistive technologies. For example, WAI-ARIA markup is used for tabs, context menus, error and confirmation messages, and for page navigation landmarks.
Your My Home and Course Home likely contain a My Settings widget with links to tools that store your personal information and preferences. Depending on your permissions, the following links may be available:
- Profile Edit your shared personal information.
- Preferences Change display settings for Cobra Learning.
- Notifications Set how you receive notifications about activity in your courses.
- Email Address Change your default email address.
- Change Password Change your password.
- View my progress View your progress in a course.
- Homepage Create a personal homepage.
- Locker Store files online so you can access them from any computer.
- ePortfolio Store and share learning artifacts and collect feedback from others.
We recommend that you adjust the settings available in the Preferences tool to meet your personal needs. Here are some recommendations:
General Preferences tab
The Login Destination option lets you log directly into a course, rather than My Home. This option can simplify navigation if you are only taking one or a few courses.
Appearance and Accessibility tab
- Use the Font Face and Font Size options to adjust the appearance of text in Cobra Learning. If you want to adjust the size of icons as well, you should use your browser's zooming or scaling options.
- If you rely on a screen reader to navigate Cobra Learning we recommend you select Show secondary windows as pop-ups; otherwise, some secondary pages may not be distinguishable from the main page.
- Many screen reader and keyboard-only users select the Turn off rich text editor and view source option. This option simplifies form pages, while still allowing users to upload HTML content authored in an external editor.
- Clear the Show the discussion topics list and Show the preview pane options to simplify the layout of discussion lists.
- Select the Grid Style message list if you want to see only a list of messages in discussion lists and open messages to read their contents. This results in less text on discussion lists.
- Some users also Include original message text in replies so they don’t have to move between discussion messages as frequently.
- Clear the Show the Message Preview pane and Show the Folder List pane options to simplify the layout of your Inbox.
- Some users also Include original message in email replies so they don’t have to move between messages as frequently.
Select the Basic and Expand all Categories options to simplify movement through the main metadata page.
Select an Incoming Page Sound to receive an auditory prompt when you are paged.
Note If you do not have FLASH installed on your computer our system uses your default media player to preview sounds. Many popular media players trap keyboard navigation and you may not be able to exit the media player after previewing a sound.
The Calendar tool can display events from multiple calendars in one view. Read the following sections to help orient yourself to key elements of the Calendar interface.
The mini calendar is the first element of the Calendar interface; it appears after a heading 2 that matches the current month and year. It's a quick reference for the active calendars in the Calendar tool. It indicates which dates have events and the day, week, or month currently selected in the main calendar display.
The mini calendar includes leading and trailing dates. This means that you might see the last days of the previous month and the first days of the next month depending on which day of the week the current month begins.
The default calendar is always set as the course from which you accessed the Calendar tool; its name appears as a heading 2 on the page. If you have permission to create course events, those events appear on the default calendar.
You can change your default calendar by selecting a course in the My Calendars list. Changing your default calendar also switches your current course in Cobra Learning to correspond to the course calendar you select.
My Calendars list
The list of calendars available to you displays under the heading 2, "My Calendars". Each calendar corresponds to an individual course you are enrolled in. If one of your courses is missing from the My Calendars list, you can add course calendars to your list by selecting Add Calendar. Use the check boxes beside each calendar to display or remove that calendar's events in the main calendar display.
Note Events in the main calendar display do not currently distinguish which courses they are part of when you scan the calendar. To distinguish which course an event is part of, you must select the event name for its details.
Calendar view modes
In addition to standard Day, Week, and Month views, the Calendar tool also displays calendar events in an Agenda and List view.
The Agenda view groups course events from your active calendars by Date, Course, or Type. Events display in chronological order and all-day events display at the top of each grouped listing.
List view displays all events from your active course calendars in chronological order. You can filter this list by event type. Click an event's name to view more details about that event. If the list contains many items, a Load More link appears at the bottom of the list as the final list item. Clicking this link appends more items to the list.
Tasks are not connected to specific calendars. The task pane enables you to keep a personal list of tasks and set their deadlines to keep track of things to do.
To simplify your interface, you can limit the appearance of the task pane from the Settings link in the Calendar tool. This link appears after the Calendar view modes.
If you are having difficulty using Cobra Learning to complete your course work, consider seeking help from your organization’s disability services, or your assistive technology’s help documentation.
- Disability Services Many organizations offer support centers where you can get help learning new technology, tutoring for difficult course material, or advice on seeking accommodation for disabilities.
- Assistive Technology There is a wealth of assistive technology products available to help people use computers and the internet. A few examples include: special keyboards and mice, speech recognition software, screen magnifiers, screen readers, and Braille displays. Investing the time to find the hardware and software that is right for you, and then learning how to use it effectively, is worthwhile. Take advantage of help documentation and tutorials to learn commands, shortcuts, frequent tasks, and special tips.